The Mexican Insolvency Regulation: Decision By means of Litigation – Or Not

Not too long ago, the Mexican Insolvency Regulation and the restructuring framework have skilled modifications and variations in response to a post-pandemic world. These modifications haven’t remained throughout the realm of mere updates however have prolonged to adjusting to a particularly unstable economic system, market constraints and challenges related to the prices of conducting a restructuring altogether. Specifically, the business has confronted extra litigious environments to keep away from assortment actions and has been gazing north to make use of a extra predictable, and extra expensive, device – Chapter 11. Nonetheless, the Mexican Insolvency Regulation stays a sensible means to salvage an organization, when used as supposed and appropriately.

Background and up to date developments

In 2019, the Mexican Insolvency Regulation was amended to incorporate majority state-owned firms once they provoke processes of disincorporation or extinction and are administered by the Institute of Administration and Value determinations of Nationwide Property.

On account of covid-19-mandated court docket closures required by Common Settlement 12/2020, issued by the Council of the Federal Judicature on 8 June 2020, the administration of justice on the federal degree was carried out extra actively by means of technological instruments, particularly by means of the Portal of On-line Companies of the Judicial Energy of the Federation, which permits the submitting of lawsuits, submissions, follow-up and session of recordsdata, by means of the web portal, which makes it simpler to conduct insolvency proceedings.

Nonetheless, on the time of writing in 2023, the implementation of the the Portal of On-line Companies of the Judicial Energy of the Federation has been successful: it has allowed the events to completely develop a web based trial, together with changing private notifications with digital ones, which makes judicial course of a lot sooner, and has helped in compensating for delays brought on by covid-19.

In 2022, essentially the most related occasion in Mexico’s insolvency regulation was the creation of the primary and second district courts specialising in insolvency issues (Courts Specialised in Business Chapter). On 4 March 2022, the Council of the Federal Judicature revealed Common Settlement 4/2022, which implements the creation and entry into operation of those specialist courts. They’re positioned in Mexico Metropolis and have jurisdiction all through Mexico. These courts started to function on 7 March 2022 to listen to proceedings regulated by the Mexican Insolvency Regulation and the amparo proceedings associated to these.

In Mexico, the collegiate circuit courts are answerable for resolving trials within the remaining occasion. Subsequently, we advise that, simply because the Courts Specialised in Business Chapter have been created, it’s essential to create Collegiate Courts Specialised in Business Chapter, to be able to proceed with the specialisation and to create a unified physique of case regulation extra intently hooked up to the Regulation of Business Chapter.

Concurso mercantil and Chapter 11

There’s a dialogue between selecting the US Chapter 11 route as a substitute for a Mexican judicial restructuring. Each procedures have their benefits. For example, Chapter 11 is more likely to be extra expeditious and predictable; nonetheless, the process is extra expensive for the corporate and of little use if many of the property are positioned in a jurisdiction aside from the US, because the Chapter 11 authority can’t intrude in one other jurisdiction. The formal insolvency continuing in Mexico (concurso mercantil) could also be extra litigious, and there could also be a lesser diploma of certainty with respect to the result of the court docket’s rulings, however it’s extra environment friendly in coping with property positioned in Mexico. In reality, it’s the solely authorized choice within the Mexican jurisdiction for coping with tax and labour claims, which can’t be processed by a Chapter 11 process for constitutional causes, amongst different issues. Thus, deciding which of the 2 choices is essentially the most handy will rely upon the place the place the corporate’s property are concentrated, and the character of and talent to deal with particular debt, taking into account that, as will probably be detailed under, every laws might have non-restructurable credit, as an example in Mexico the case of labour and tax credit.

Vital issues are required when selecting Chapter 11 over a concurso mercantil. Beneath the Mexican Insolvency Regulation, any foremost insolvency continuing in respect of an organization with its foremost workplace or company domicile in Mexico that’s performed overseas (i.e., a Chapter 11 continuing in respect of a Mexican firm with its domicile in Mexico) could also be recognised in Mexico however the caveat is that, when doing so, the concurso regulation mandates opening a brand new concurso mercantil course of, thereby defeating the aim of searching for recognition of a overseas plan. Which means that, successfully, a Chapter 11 plan is underneath severe threat of not being recognised in Mexico if the debtor is a Mexican firm.

The concurso mercantil course of and litigation

It has been claimed that one downside with Latin American reorganisations is that they’re typically resolved in litigation somewhat than restructuring proceedings. This can be so in respect of some proceedings however, in our opinion, it is dependent upon the angle of the collectors concerning the continuing and whether or not they intend to collaborate within the restructuring course of. The reluctance of some collectors to have interaction with a given restructuring course of could also be as a result of unfavourable impression generated by the earlier regulation that failed to determine a remaining deadline at some point of the automated keep.

Additionally it is price noting that, given the excessive specialisation {that a} judicial restructuring has in our authorized framework, there could also be disinformation concerning the truth that using the Mexican Insolvency Regulation by the applicant is a debt reorganisation device and never a fee mechanism.

However the aforementioned previous and cultural context, the Mexican Insolvency Regulation has efficient instruments to guard the debtor from enforcements ensuing from litigation, particularly cautionary measures that defend an organization’s property and simple stays in opposition to enforcement. In the end, by means of these instruments, any order issued in litigation to gather a declare in opposition to a debtor’s property will probably be stopped and the quantities owed will find yourself being a part of the reorganisation plan entered into by the vast majority of the collectors accredited by the court docket. This, successfully, deactivates litigation.

We consider that the pointless problem of judicial resolutions in a concurso mercantil that sure collectors might undertake as a dilatory technique may very well be eradicated with a easy modification to Part 268 of the Mexican Insolvency Regulation.

With a stricter restriction of the judicial resolutions which may be challenged by means of an attraction and the eradication of the revocación, collectors will probably be obliged to solely litigate choices that straight have an effect on elementary rights by means of a juicio de amparo. Reorganisation proceedings underneath the Mexican Insolvency Regulation are a judicial course of and, due to this fact, current sure litigation challenges. Stays of orders issued by a concurso choose are very uncommon, permitting the concurso mercantil course of and the restructuring to proceed whereas litigation is underneath approach. It’s not supreme however attainable to nonetheless impact a restructuring whereas going through litigation.

Mexican regulation allows debtor-in-possession financing to be obtained. Nonetheless, this typically applies to shareholders or suppliers, since there are a lot of restrictions on banks doing so. Nonetheless, there are exceptions, such because the case of Altán Redes, through which Mexican banks supplied financing in alternate for growing their shareholding.

The concurso mercantil course of is shareholder pleasant. On this regard, there isn’t a absolute precedence rule in Mexico. A shareholder has to waive pre-emptive rights for debtholders to get new fairness; this has occurred in some restructurings through which collectors, as within the case of Geo, accepted the capitalisation (fee in type (PIK)) of their debt. Nonetheless, in observe, collectors who present financing or settle for a PIK part for compensation of the debt are more and more inclined in direction of requiring shareholders to waive their pre-emptive rights and dilute, as a situation for the debtor to acquire financing. The dearth of skill to cram down fairness forward of debtholders has confirmed to be a really efficient negotiating device in current instances (similar to Corporación GEO, Altán Redes, Alpha Credit score and MG Polymeros) and has pushed the market to lean closely on debt devices as a way for restructuring whereas preserving the potential for fairness dilution. The lack to impact a direct restructuring of fairness is rooted in authorized rules that strongly divide shareholders from the corporate through which they make investments. The duty of shareholders, as a normal rule, is restricted to their capital contribution within the enterprise.

There are different challenges related to any restructuring in Mexico that accommodates a PIK or dilution part that touches varied statutes along with the Mexican Insolvency Regulation. Sure tax points nonetheless current challenges when suppliers should capitalise their debt. Typically the worth of the shares to be acquired within the capitalisation is decrease than the worth added tax on the provider invoices that signify the debt to be capitalised, which prevents collectors from buying the shares as supplied by a plan. This additionally impacts company regulation and the loopholes related to buying shares because of a concurso plan.

As a matter of observe, and intently tied to the shortage of skill to cram down fairness in concurso, the restructuring negotiations are performed by shareholders. This creates an setting through which an organization’s advisers turn out to be advisers for each the corporate and its fairness holders. It’s much less widespread to turn out to be an adviser to each the board and the corporate for a similar cause.

Along with the above, we consider it’s essential to reform a number of legislations, particularly banking laws, to be able to make the Mexican Insolvency Regulation more practical, particularly in issues of financing.

Elements affecting current instances

On condition that the magnitude of the results of the covid-19 pandemic remained extremely unsure for nearly two years, varied components, similar to supply-chain disruptions or the closure of a larger variety of shops, had an opposed impact on the enterprise of retail firms such because the Famsa Group.

Mexico stands out as one of many international locations that supplied the least help to retail companies throughout the pandemic. In knowledge revealed by the Worldwide Financial Fund, Mexico is proven to be one of many international locations with the bottom tax response throughout 2020 (i.e., the least quantity of expenditure in offering support throughout the pandemic and the fewest tax cuts).

The Mexican authorities did enable banks to supply an extension to their purchasers for the compensation of their loans with out having to order the mortgage, as per banking laws, within the occasion of failure to make well timed funds. On condition that this measure was elective for the banks and solely delayed the issue for a couple of months, the measure was ineffective.

Solely two aviation instances have been heard by a concurso court docket all through the historical past of the Mexican Insolvency Regulation: Mexicana de Aviación and Interjet. Each instances, through which the bigger quantity of the debt was neither monetary nor industrial, have gained notoriety for being unsuccessful. Mexicana had a considerable quantity of labour debt and Interjet had an enormous tax debt. Neither of most of these claims could also be restructured by means of a concurso mercantil, because the statute offers that upon emergence from concurso, labour and tax claims shall be paid in accordance with the relevant regulatory legal guidelines (i.e., that it’s not attainable to restructure most of these debt).

From this angle, the shortage of success in these two instances could also be attributed to the character of the debt versus the method and concurso regulation itself.

Nonetheless, roughly a 12 months in the past, Mexico’s largest airline Aeroméxico efficiently concluded a Chapter 11 continuing in the US Chapter Courtroom for the Southern District of New York through which the corporate achieved a major monetary restructuring that has permitted uninterrupted operations and thus far averted any judicial restructuring procedures underneath Mexican jurisdiction.


The pandemic, and the closure of courts that resulted from the pandemic, aggravated the unfavourable notion by the general public with respect to Mexican restructuring normally, and the concurso mercantil course of particularly. The efforts by the Mexican legislature to undertake the UNCITRAL Mannequin Regulation on Cross-Border Insolvency opened the trail for worldwide recognition but in addition created a state of affairs through which many features of the method have been left unresolved and there’s a very clear absence of normal Mexican regulation rules included in statute.

Regardless of the enhancements that we might recommend are wanted for concurso mercantil proceedings, we discover a beneficial development with the creation of the district courts specialising in insolvency issues. Inside merely a 12 months of their creation, the Council of the Federal Judicature has reported an increase within the admission of restructuring proceedings in our nation. Additionally it is famous that the authorized neighborhood is actively encouraging the creation of a specialised Collegiate District Courtroom specialised in concurso mercantil issues that ensures that the judicial evaluate is practiced over the resolutions issued by the district courts specialising in insolvency issues have the experience and proficiency in restructuring proceedings.

But, it was inevitable that sure firms needed to resort to the concurso mercantil mechanism to restructure their debt as they’d no different choices. This underlined a constructive function of the Mexican Insolvency Regulation, which is that, if used correctly and in good religion, it’s nonetheless as efficient to restructure debt because it was at its inception.

In conclusion, we take into account that the Mexican authorized neighborhood wants to start out a protracted course of to pursue a cultural and mindset transition each for judicial authorities officers and personal practitioners in order that the insolvency course of is taken into account as an instrument of restructuring and never a fee device for collectors.


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